CARIBBEAN ROOTS MUSIC
Calypso, rara, zouk, méringue, bomba y plena, palos, tumba.
Origins: 18th century to mid-19th century.
Curator’s Note: Cuban, Jamaican, and other Caribbean styles (salsa, bachata, and more) are located in separate folders. On a practical level, there were more resources for each than what would fit here. This also allows for a clearer chronological timeline in terms of their respective origins and influence to later genres.
- Atilla's Kaiso: A Short History of Trinidad Calypso by Raymond Quevedo, 1983.
- Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions in the Making by John Cowley, 1996.
Black Music of Two Worlds: African, Caribbean, Latin, and African-American Traditions by John Storm Roberts, 1998.
- A Day for the Hunter, a Day for the Prey: Popular Music and Power in Haiti by Gage Averill, 1997.
- Barbadian Popular Music and the Politics of Caribbean Culture by Curwen Best, 1999.
- Culture @ the Cutting Edge: Tracking Caribbean Popular Music by Curwen Best, 2000.
- Awakening spaces: French Caribbean popular song, music, and culture by Brenda Berrian, 2000.
- Rituals of Power and Rebellion: The Carnival Tradition in Trinidad and Tobago by Hollis Liverpool a.k.a. Chalkdust, 2001.
- Rara! Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti and Its Diaspora by Elizabeth McAlister, 2002. ︎
- Caribbean Dance from Abakuá to Zouk: How Movement Shapes Identity, ed. Susanna Sloat, 2002.
- From the Horse's Mouth: An Analysis of Certain Significant Aspects in the Development of the Calypso and Society as Gleaned from Personal Communication with Some Outstanding Calypsonians by Hollis Liverpool a.k.a. Chalkdust, 2003.
- Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Encyclopedic History: Volume 2: Performing the Caribbean Experience, Ed. Malena Kuss 2007.
- Carriacou String Band Serenade: Performing Identity in the Eastern Caribbean Book by Rebecca Susan Miller, 2007.
- Music, Memory, Resistance: Calypso and the Caribbean Literary Imagination Ed. by Sandra Pouchet Paquet, 2007.︎
- Rhythms of the Afro-Atlantic World: Rituals and Remembrances, Ed. Ifeoma Kiddoe Nwankwo, Mamadou Diouf, 2010.
- Music of Latin America and the Caribbean by Mark Brill, 2010.
- See Chs. 4 & 5 for the Spanish/English/French-speaking Caribbean.
- Chocolate Surrealism: Music, Movement, Memory, and History in the Circum-Caribbean by Njoroge M. Njoroge, 2016.
- After the Dance, the Drums Are Heavy: Carnival, Politics, and Musical Engagement in Haiti by Rebecca Hope Dirksen, 2020.
FILMS & SERIES
FILMS & SERIES
- Plena Is Work, Plena Is Song, prod. Pedro Rivera and Susan Zeig, 1989. 37 minutes.
- Raíces (Bomba y Plena), dir. Paloma Suau, 2001. 1hr 40 minutes.
- Calypso Dreams, dir. Geoffrey Dunn & Michael Horne, 2004. 1hr and 25 minutes. Available on YouTube.
- Boni Raposo: Su vida y la música tradicional dominicana, dir. William Alemán, 2008. 77 minutes. Available on Vimeo.
- The Dominican Gagá, dir. William Alemán, 2013. 22 minutes. Available on Vimeo.
- La Bomba: A Puerto Rican Tool of Resistance Through Creative Expression, prod. Ángela M. Capeles, June 7, 2017. 25 minutes.
- Puerto Rico's Bomba, A Dance of The African Diaspora by KQED Arts, June 2020, 6 minutes.
- “Black Carib Folk Music” by Richard Hadel, Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 22, 1976.
- UNESCO’s Palos Listing: “Cultural space of the Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit of the Congos of Villa Mella,” 2008. ︎
- “Curaçao After Dark” (Tumba) by Baz Dreisinger, NYTimes, March 2012.
- “Diasporal Dimensions of Dominican Folk Religion and Music,” Martha Ellen Davis, Black Music Research Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2012.
- “NY Afro-Puerto Rican & Afro-Dominican Roots Music: Liberation Mythologies & Overlapping Diasporas” by Raquel Z. Rivera, 2012. ︎
- “Bomba, danza, calipso y merengue: Creación del espacio social en las fiestas de Santiago Apóstol de Loíza” by Jaime O. Bofill Calero, Latin American Music Review, Vol. 35, No. 1, Spring/Summer 2014.
- “Brief History of the Music from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao” by Scott Rollins, Otrobanda Records, June 2016.
- “The subversive power of calypso music” by Benjamin Ramm, BBC, October 2017.
- “Bomba: The Enduring Anthem of Puerto Rico” by Rose Marie Cromwell, Lauren Du Graf, Eve Lyons, NYTimes, July, 2018. ︎
- “Mighty Sparrow: the king of calypso on freedom, Windrush and oral sex” by Vivien Goldman, The Guardian, November 2018.
- “Puerto Rico: a baptism in Bomba” by Farida Zeynalova, NatGeo, December 2019.
- “Jacob Desvarieux: Zouk Pioneer and Diaspora Music Theorist” by Giulio Pecci, Griot Mag, August 2021.
PODCASTS & RADIO
- “Latin Roots: Bomba Y Plena” by NPR World Cafe, January 2013. 9-minute listen.
- “Latin Roots: Merengue” by NPR World Cafe, February 2013. 6-minute listen.
- “Luiz Gonzaga: The King of Baião” by Afropop Worldwide, October 2019. 1h.
- “Afro-Dominicana: The Other Dominican Republic” by Afropop Worldwide, August 2017. 1h.
- “Bomba, Plena And Puerto Rican Protest Music” by Afropop Worldwide, August 2020. 1h.
“Quelbe: Hidden Treasure Of The Caribbean” by Afropop Worldwide, October 2020. 1h.