Highlight denotes Black author or source | Highly recommended ︎


Changüí, timba, guarachas, son cubano, rumba, and mambo.
Origins: 19th century to mid-20th century.


  • The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin American Music on the United States by John Storm Roberts, 1979. ︎

  • Essays on Cuban Music: North American and Cuban Perspectives ed. by Peter Manuel, 1991.

  • Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubanismo and Artistic Revolution in Havana, 1920-1940 by Robin D. Moore, 1997. ︎

  • Latin Jazz: The First of the Fusions, 1880s to Today by John Storm Roberts, 1999.

  • Cuban Fire: The Story of Salsa and Latin Jazz by Isabelle Leymarie, 1999.

  • Music from Cuba: Mongo Santamaria, Chocolate Armenteros, and Other Stateside Cuban Musicians by Charles D. Gerard, 2001.

  • Cubano Be, Cubano Bop: One Hundred Years of Jazz in Cuba by Leonardo Acosta, 2003.

  • Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo by Ned Sublette, 2004.

  • Timba: The Sound Of The Cuban Crisis by Vincenzo Perna, 2005.

  • Tropicana Nights: The Life and Times of the Legendary Cuban Nightclub by Rosa Lowinger, Ofelia Fox, 2005. ︎

  • From Afro-Cuban Rhythms to Latin Jazz (Music of the African Diaspora) by Raul A. Fernandez, 2006.

  • Afro-Cuban Traditional Music and Transculturation by Nolan Warden, 2007.

  • Origins of Cuban Music and Dance: Changüí by Benjamin Lapidus, 2008.

  • The Clave Matrix: Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins by David Penalosa, 2009. ︎

  • Rebel Dance, Renegade Stance: Timba Music and Black Identity in Cuba by Umi Vaughan, 2012.

  • The Artistry of Afro-Cuban Batá Drumming: Aesthetics, Transmission, Bonding, and Creativity by Kenneth Schweitzer, 2013.

  • Danzón: Circum-Caribbean Dialogues in Music and Dance by Alejandro L. Madrid and Robin D. Moore, 2013.

  • Roots in Reverse: Senegalese Afro-Cuban Music and Tropical Cosmopolitanism by Richard M Shain, 2018.

  • Decoding Afro-Cuban Jazz: The Music of Chucho Valdes by Chucho Valdes and Rebeca Mauleon, 2019.


  • Music of Cuba” (Notes on recordings by John Santos) by Smithsonian Folkways, 1985. ︎

    • Curator’s Note: This headline is terrible; the use of “discovery” reeks of colonialism. The article is only included here for now because it provides a good overview for those unfamiliar with Cuba’s music styles.


  • Buena Vista Social Club, dir. Wim Wenders, 1999. 1h 45m.

  • A Tuba to Cuba, dir. T.G. Herrington, Danny Clinch, 2019. Available on Netflix.


  • Changüí!” by Afropop Worldwide, September 2021. 59m.